The Multi point perspective is created in much the same way as a 2-point perspective.
The 2-point perspective is so called because from where the object is seen only 2 faces are seen. If however 3 or more faces are seen it is known as a multi-point perspective [MPP]. One vanishing point (VP) per face.
The difference between a 3-point perspective and a [MPP] with 3 VP's is that all VP in the [MPP] are on the horizon. Whereas the conventional 3-point perspective the third VP either above or below the object
Then there is another version of the [MPP] where 3 or more VP's on the horizon plus another VP above or below the object. For example a hexagonal shape see from above. (A bird's eye view.)
And if that wasn't enough there are those [MPP] where there could be several VP above or below the object/objects. For example are bird's or worm's eye view of Manhattan.
As you work through the slides below on how to draw a multi 2 point perspective you may come across a link to an associated footnote. You can either follow the links and return to the related slide, or read the footnotes at the bottom of the page after you have completed the demonstration.
Before we move on 'How to draw' each of the multi 2 point perspective, you will require a plan, elevation and in some cases a section of the 'Object' you wish to draw perspective of. All must be the same scale.
Object - Plan - Elevation
To draw perspective you will require a larger worktop to position the plan, and elevations on. Once these have been setup they must to be taped down. Next you will need a longer straightedge, a scale to match and the trusty pencil. In more complex jobs it may be advisable to use a range of coloured pencils. Then for the axonometric projections a adjustable set-square would be useful.
1: Here, 2 objects have been randomly placed above the working drawing (WD) and the elevation on the left. Thereafter, from a selected point 'O' on the object a vertical 'Line of vision' was draw and the position of the eye was added. From that same point 'O' & perpendicular to the 'Line of vision' the 'Picture Plane' (PP) was drawn.
2: Then the relevant heights are draw from the elevation 'O' onto the working drawing (WD) and a Horizon line was draw at an arbitrary height within the height range of the object.
3: Next the 2 vanishing points have to be setup. From the eye parallel to one face of the object a Construction line is draw to the picture plane (PP). Thereafter, the same is done parallel to the side face of the object. From where those lines intersect the PP 'O' they are Projected down to the Horizon. The one on the left is the Left Vanishing Point (LVP), and the other on the right is the Right Vanishing Point (RVP)..
4: With the setup complete let's start the perspective. First a Construction line is drawn from the eye to the relevant corners 'O'. Where those lines intersect the PP 'O' a Perpendicular line is draw onto the WD.
5: Next the vanishing lines must be plotted. From the intersection of the Line of vision & the Ground line 'O' draw a Construction line to each VP and do the same from the higher Roofline 'O'.
6: With all the vanishing Construction line & Vertical lines in place draw in the object faces. However, one side will be partly obscured by the remaining lower portion of the object.
7: To complete the first object the Construction line are drawn from the eye to the remaining relevant corners 'O'. As in step 4, at the intersection of the PP 'O' a Perpendicular line is draw onto the WD.
8: Before adding the vanishing line the height of the lower must to setup. From the intersection of the Lower Roofline and Line of vision a Construction line must be draw to RVP. From the intersection of that line and corner Construction line 'o' the Vanishing lines is drawn to the LVP. Then add the remaining Vanishing lines to the RVP.
9: With the remaining vanishing lines in place the final two faces and little slither of the roof can now be drawn.
10. Lastly, plot the Vertical construction line to the opening and from the Line of vision add the Vanishing lines.
11. Thereafter, draw in the opening. To draw the second object a new LVP & RVP will have to be setup as in step 3. Okay, lets see how that is done. From the eye parallel to the front face of the new object a Parallel line is draw to the picture plane (PP).
12. Thereafter, the same is done parallel to the side face of the object. From where those Lines intersect the PP. 'O' a Perpendicular line are projected to the Horizon. The one on the left is the new Left Vanishing Point (LVP), and the other on the new right is the Right Vanishing Point (RVP), which is in fact off the screen.
13.Next the height of the second must be determined. The only point where the second object is 'to scale' is where it intersects the PP. That happens twice, but is probably better to choose the visible face 'O'. From that intersection draw a perpendicular Centre construction line onto the WD. Thereafter add the Height lines from the elevation.
14. As with the first object (step 4) add the relevant construction lines. That is, add Construction line from eye to relevant corner 'O' and where is intersects the PP 'O' add a Perpendicular lines onto the WD. In the case where the corner 'O' is in front of the PP it must be extended backwards to the PP.
15. Starting from the Centre construction line add the vanishing lines 'o' and draw the object faces.
16. Finally, add the opening to the front face of the second object can be added. As done on the first object (step 10).
17. Now let's look at how to do a perspective of an object that is not square and the 'sides' are not perpendicular. A hexagonal tent, or 'Hex'. The hex plan is setup with one corner on the line of vision 'O' and rotated to a 'whatever' angle. Perpendicular to the line of vision the PP is drawn from that same point 'O'. The elevation to the same scale is positioned on the left of the WD.
18: Next the vanishing points have to be plotted. The previous rectangular object only needed 2 VP's. Because the hex has 3 parallel sides it will require 3 VP's. One for each visible face.
19: Parallel to each face draw from the eye 3 lines to PP 'O'. Thereafter, determine a Horizon and Project the positions of the VP's to the horizon. In this case VP2 is off the page and beyond the screen.
20: From the eye draw the Construction line to the relevant corners to the second side of the hex 'O'. Where those lines intersect the PP. 'O' draw a Perpendicular line onto the WD. Note: these have been colour coded.
21: With those in place add the Vanishing lines from the intersection of the Height line & the Line of vision 'o' to VP2. When that is done draw in the 2 faces.
22: Add the Construction line from eye to the relevant corners of third side of the hex 'O'. At the intersection of the PP 'O' project the lines onto the WD.
23: Add the Vanishing lines to VP1 . In much the same way add the Construction and Vanishing lines to side 1.
24: With the lower faces in place, the last remaining upper faces can now be drawn.
25: In this example we will look at how to draw a perspective of a cylinder, arch or curve. The cylinder has been setup on the intersection of the line of vision and PP.
26. Other than the rim at the top and bottom a cylinder has no corners or points to refer to when setting out the construction lines. So we have to create artificial points by dividing circle into equal divisions. This circle has been divided into segments of 15 degrees. 'o'. It can be more or less, but ideally it should be a divisible of 90 degrees.
27. With these artificial points in place setup the Construction line and project to Vertical line on to the WD.
28. The outer face of each segment is in fact is 15 degree arch but it is treated as a straight line so the vanishing points can be setup. As previous draw a Construction line from the eye to the PP.
29.Do the same to all 5 visible segments. In this example segment zero is not visible from the eye so there is no need to setup a VP for it. Extended the Vertical line on to the WD.
30. Thereafter, setup a Horizon and Project the VP's down on to it.
31. Then starting from the line of vision draw each segment's front face in turn.
32. Once one side has been done it can be mirrored to the other side. All that is left to do is draw the elliptical arch at the top and bottom of the cylinder.
1: Positioning the elevation In the above example on how to draw a multi point perspective the elevation is shown next to the working drawing. However, practically it would be better to move it further to the left and beyond the construction lines. If you are using a straightedge it tends to scuff, if nor tear the paper benighted it.
On the other hand if you are left-handed the elevation could be positioned on the right of the working drawing. On more complex multi point perspective there may be a need to use 2 or more elevations to retrieve the relevant dimensions. If this is the case all the elevations must be set-up with related levels on the same line.
2: Positioning the elevation In a 2 point perspective the picture plane is usually positioned relative to a particular feature. But this is not a rule of thumb. If you require a larger multi point perspective the picture plane can be move closer to the eye. Conversely, if you require a smaller multi point perspective the picture plane can be moved to position beyond the object. In both cases the vanishing lines will be the same.
3. Construction lines In the demonstration above on how to draw a multi point perspective the construction lines are shown as a complete line from point to point. Though this is necessary to illustrate the point, in reality the working drawing will get dirty from the straightedge been moved over the existing construction lines. To reduce that possibility, only draw that part of the line that is relevant. For example, only at the intersections.
Another method that could be employed is to insert a mapping pin at the 2 vanishing points and at the 'eye' to support the straightedge at that point.
4. Horizon above and below the object Generally the horizon on multi point perspectives is positioned within the height of the object. Although this is a recommendation, there is no reason to prevent you from moving the horizon to a position above or below the object. As long as this does not exceed twice the height of the object the need for a vertical vanishing point could be avoided.
5. More complex Multi point perspective On more complex multi point perspective it maybe better to do only one face at a time in conjunction with step 10 & 11. Another option could be to do several working drawings each covering a particular aspect.