The following step-by-step slideshow will demonstrate how to draw a typical internal perspective. The internal perspective uses the 1-point perspective methodology to map the vectors of the surrounding structure. A method that applies to any perspective that views an open space surrounded by either objects or structures.
Typical examples could be of an auditorium or some other internal structures. Or, it could be a perspective of what is seen when looking down a street surrounded by buildings.
To draw a one point perspective you will require a Plan & elevation of the 'object' been drawn. Both of which must be to the scale. However, if the 'object' been drawn is comparatively simple the elevation may not be necessary and the horizontal dimensions can be scaled.
Here you will be shown how to set-up the proposed perspective and how to adjust the different components such as the focal point, horizon and distance. In reality the scene we are looking at usually extends beyond what we see. Consequently, arch of vision must be applied to establish a cut-off point.
Object - Plan - Elevation
In this example the elevations are comparatively simple so they may not be necessary. Providing you know the dimensions it may be easier just to use a scale. However, it is not recommended on more complex objects, but it is possible to do an accurate perspective without the elevation views.
To draw perspective you will require a larger worktop to position the plan, and elevations on. Once these have been setup they must to be taped down. Next you will need a longer straightedge, a scale to match and the trusty pencil. In more complex jobs it may be advisable to use a range of coloured pencils. Then for the axonometric projections a adjustable set-square would be useful.
1: Here we have a floor plan and section of a small auditorium which will be used to draw the proposed 1-point perspective. The two side walls are at an angle, the floor has several levels, and the ceiling is pitched. In the step by step demonstration that follows you will shown how to map the regression of these three variations in 1-point perspective. To map the perspective the floor plan and cross section must be to the same scale and set-up within particular parameters.
2: Place the floor plan above your working drawing and determine a Viewing Point. In this case it has been positioned at the back of the auditorium and a little to the right. In this example the plan is kept square, but it can rotated if need be. Next position the Picture Plane. This can be placed almost anywhere. The closer it is to the Viewing Point the larger the perspective. But ideally, it should be on a building point. In this example the Picture Plane has been placed on front of the platform. Next from the Viewing Point and perpendicular to the Picture Plane add the Line of Vision. At the Viewing Point add the Arch of Vision of 120 degrees. This will determine the cut-off of the 1-point perspective. Any points beyond the Arch of Vision become too wide and should be ignored. From approximately center of the working drawing add the Horizon perpendicular to the Line of Vision. Then position the elevation at the required height. At the intersection of the Horizon & Line of Vision is the Vanishing Point.
3: The first thing to do is to map those Building Point visible to the eye. From the Viewing Point draw a Construction Line to each visible Building Point. Where the Construction Line Intersects the Picture Plane draw a Vertical Line perpendicular to the Picture Plane and extend it onto the working drawing. If at any point, the Building Point is in front of the Picture Plane the Construction Line must be extended to the Picture Plane. Note the two Vertical Lines that map the corner of the walls are draw in a different colour.
4: Next the regression of the platform must be mapped. Firstly project the relevant Heights from the section onto the working drawing. The regression lines in 1-point perspectives are only to scale at the Picture Plane. Before & after that they will be affected by the regression. Consequently, the Height Lines are only to scale at a line that is on the the picture. In this example being the front face of the platform. From the intersection of the Vertical Line of the front of the platform (2nd line) & its floor Height Line draw the floor level Regression Lines to the VP. Then from the intersection of same Vertical Line & the ceiling Height Line draw the ceiling level Regression Lines to the VP. Where the Regression Lines - Intersect the corner Vertical Line and Intersect the back corner Vertical Line is the side wall of the platform.
5: With the Regression Line in place draw the platform's Side and Back wall, Floor and Ceiling. Note: In this example there is a little slither of the sloping ceiling above the platform ceiling. This line is important because later it will become the base line for mapping the ceiling. .
6: Next the heights of the front wall must be mapped. Remember, it is only at the front face of the platform that heights are to scale. So the regression must be mapped from the bottom corner of the platform. At the Intersect of the lower Floor Height and the Vertical Line draw a Regression Line to the VP. Where the Regression Line Intersects the corner Vertical Line draw a Horizontal Line to indicate the floor line of the front wall on both sides of the platform. Thereafter draw the Front Face. With the platform and front wall in place there is a small portion to the Side of platform that also be added.
7: Next the floor levels need to mapped. From the Viewing Point draw a Construction Line to each Intersection of the floor level on the auditorium Center Line. Then extend them to the Picture Plane. Where the Construction Line Intersect the Picture Plane draw a perpendicular Vertical Line on to the working drawing.
8: First, extend the Floor Levels from the section on to the working drawing. Then add a Regression Line from the VP to the Intersection of the extended Center Line and each Floor Levels. Thereafter extend each Regression Line to the next Vertical Line. This will create a perspective view of the steps in section. Where the Orange Intersection is the base of a step and Gray Intersection is the top of a step. Next we will need to map the width of each step. So, before doing that add a temporary horizontal line at the Base and Top of each step.
9: To map the widths of each level draw a Construction Line from the Viewing Point to the End Point of each step and extend it to the Picture Plane. Note: there is no need to include those End Points that are outside the Arch of Vision. Then where the Construction Line Intersect the Picture Plane draw a Vertical Line on to the working drawing.
10. Although a portion of each floor level will be partly obscured by the level above it, the complete area will be drawn to show how it is done. Start by extending the first Base Line of the first step to the Vertical Lines on both sides. Thereafter, draw the First floor from the front of the auditorium's front corner to the first Base Line.
11. The second floor level is done in much the same way. First extend the First Top Line and Second Base Line to the Vertical Line of the Second level on both sides. Thereafter, draw the Second floor level. Note, a portion of the lower level is now obscured by the new level. The same will happen when the third level gets drawn. An alternative method could be to draw only that part of the floor level that is visible. That being from the first Top Line to the second Top line.
12. Again, level three is done in much the same way. However, the one side of level Three and both the sides of level Four are beyond the Arch of Vision. So there is no need to extend the those floor levels beyond the margin of the working drawing.
13.Next the ceiling must be mapped. This is different in that the ceiling is pitched and the regression gets higher the nearer it gets to the Viewing Point. The width of the ceiling at the ridge is on the same line as the step to the second floor level, so the same Vertical Line can be used. Because the side wall is at an angle a perpendicular must be set-up to map the regression. In other words, if the side wall was square, what would be the regression be at the first step. From the Building Point at the step to the second level add a Vertical Line perpendicular to the Picture Plane and extend it on to the working drawing. Then extend the Height from the section on to the working drawing. Where the Height Line Intersects the perpendicular Vertical Line draw a Regression Line to the VP and extend it to the existing Vertical Line. From that intersection draw a horizontal line to the Vertical Line on the opposite side and draw the first part of the Ceiling.
14. Next the furniture on each level must be mapped. Here again, most of the furniture on the lower levels will be obscured by that at the back of the auditorium. But this is been done purely to demonstrate how it is done. In fact in reality it would probably better to start from the back and later fill in where there are openings. Draw a Construction Line to each visible Corner of the furniture on the lower level and extend them to the Picture Plane. Where the Construction Line Intersect the Picture Plane draw a Vertical Line on to the working drawing. Then extend the Edge Line on to the working drawing. Also extend the Height Line from the section. From the Intersection of the Height Line & Edge Line draw a Regression Line to the VP and extend the near side beyond the edge Vertical Lines.
15. The side if the Furniture is where the first Regression Line Intersects the 2 Vertical Line. From the second Intersection draw a Horizontal Line to the 2 outer Vertical Line of the furniture. The 3 remaining sides to the first level furniture are where the Horizontal Line Intersects the remaining 3 Vertical Line. From these 3 Intersections draw a Regression Line to the VP. These Regression Lines are the sides to the 2 blocks of furniture.
16. With the Regression Line and Horizontal Lines in place draw the 2 blocks of Furniture.
17. The next level is done in much the same way. From the Viewing Point draw a Construction Line to each visible Corner of the second level furniture and extend them to the Picture Plane. Where the Construction Line Intersect the Picture Plane draw the Vertical Line on to the working drawing. The previously Edge Line is still valid so it can be reused to map the second level furniture. Then extend the Height line of the second level of furniture from the section on to the working drawing.
18. Then as previously, add the Regression Line from the VP to the intersection of the Height Line and the Edge Line then extended it to the second Vertical Line to map the height of the furniture. Once a horizontal line has been added, draw a Regression Lines from intersection of the the horizontal and the Vertical Line of the two side and the remaining center edge. Thereafter, draw the Furniture.
19. Here the Vertical Line to the third level of furniture has been mapped in much the same way. Where it differs from the previous is in the width of the left side of the furniture. Although this point is just within the Arch of Vision its Vertical Line would beyond the edge of the working drawing. Consequently that side of the furniture will have to be squared at the working drawing margin as was done with the Floor.
20. As with the previously levels, the Regression Line from the intersection of the third level Height Line and the Edge Line must be drawn to the VP and extended to the second Vertical Line to map the height of the furniture. Once a horizontal line has been added a Regression Line must be drawn from each intersection of the horizontal and Vertical Line to the VP. Thereafter, draw the Furniture with it been squared on the left side.
21. At the forth level it is only necessary to map the center corridor. Because both of the side edges are beyond the Arch of Vision, they should be drawn as squared at the margin of the drawing.
22. All that is left is to add the side walls and the remaining ceiling.
23. Because the near furniture obscures that in front of it, it would be more realistic to start from the back and move forward filling in on those part that are visible. But as said this was done to demonstrate the process of how the map the different levels of furniture.
24. Finally, Here is the completed perspective without the furniture.