Here you will be shown how to draw a 1-point perspective with the use of a step-by-step slideshow demonstration. The one point perspective is generally known as an internal perspective where the image been viewed is an auditorium, theater, or the like. It is also used for particular external perspective such as looking down a street or across a playing field. The defining aspect of a 1-point perspective is that its focal point is an open space with objects surrounding it.
To draw a one point perspective you will require a Plan & elevation of the 'object' been drawn. Both of which must be to the scale. However, if the 'object' been drawn is comparatively simple the elevation may not be necessary and the horizontal dimensions can be scaled.
In this demonstration you will be shown how to set-up the proposed perspective and how to adjust the different components such as the focal point, horizon and distance. In reality the scene we are looking at usually extends beyond what we see. Consequently, arch of vision must be applied to establish a cut-off point.
Before we move on 'How to draw' each of the 1 point perspective, you will require a plan, elevation and in some cases a section of the 'Object' you wish to draw perspective of. All must be the same scale.
Object - Plan - Elevation
In this example the elevations are comparatively simple so they may not be necessary. Providing you know the dimensions it may be easier just to use a scale. However, it is not recommended on more complex objects, but it is possible to do an accurate perspective without the elevation views.
To draw perspective you will require a larger worktop to position the plan, and elevations on. Once these have been setup they must to be taped down. Next you will need a longer straightedge, a scale to match and the trusty pencil. In more complex jobs it may be advisable to use a range of coloured pencils. Then for the axonometric projections a adjustable set-square would be useful.
1: Above the working drawing is the plan of a street scene of buildings not the same size, and not all in a row. They have been colour coded to help with the mapping of the perspective. To the left are the elevations of one and the other side of the street. Furthermore, the buildings are at different levels, and differ in height.
2: Before we start mapping the perspective, have to determine a Viewing Point. From the Viewing Point add the Line of Vision. Note this is a little off the centre line. Then at a set distance from the Viewing Point add the Picture Plane perpendicular to the Line of Vision. From the Viewing Point add the Arch of Vision. In this example it has been set at 120 degrees. Note 1. Next add the Horizon at a set height to the elevation. Finally add the VP at the intersection of the Horizon and Line of Vision.
3: To begin mapping the perspective draw a Construction Line to each visible Building Point. Note 2 colours have been used to help identify the building. If the Building Point are in front of the Picture Plane the Construction Lines must be extended to the Picture Plane. Then where the Construction Lines intersect the Picture Plane draw a Vertical Line perpendicular to the Picture Plane and extend it to beyond the Horizon.
4: With the Vertical Line in place we need the heights to map the regression. Start by extending the Heights of the building nearest the Picture Plane to beyond the Line of Vision. Where they intersect the Font Face of the building draw a Regression Line to the VP. With the Regression Line in place add the front face.
5: Next extent the Heights of the first building to beyond the face just drawn. Because the far end of the second building is on the Picture Plane and it is at that point where all heights are to scale. Any point before or beyond that point is affected by the regression. So where the Height Lines intersect the far end draw a Regression Line to the VP and extend it to the near end of that face. These are the Offset Heights to the first building.
6: Therefore, from these heights on the first building's Vertical Line draw a Regression Line to the VP and extend it to the near Vertical Line. Thereafter draw the front face of first building and add the partly obscured face to the second building. Because most of the side face of the first falls out side the Arch of Vision there is no need to extent it beyond your working drawing. [Note: 2]
7: Next the remaining visible Building Points must be mapped. As previously, draw a Construction Line from the Viewing Point to each visible Building Points. Note these have been colour coded to match the buildings. Then where the Construction Line intersect the Picture Plane draw a Vertical Line perpendicular to the Picture Plane to beyond the Horizon. Thereafter extend the Heights of the third building.
8: Where the Height Lines intersect the far face of the second building (Line of the Picture Plane) draw a Regression Line to the VP and draw the front face of the third building.
9: Next extend the Heights of the forth building to beyond the line of the Picture Plane. At the intersection of the Height Lines and the line of the Picture Plane draw a Regression Line to the VP and draw in the front face of the forth building. Thereafter, add the partly obscured side face to the forth building.
10. To do the last building much the same must be done. Where the Height Lines intersect the line of the Picture Plane draw a Regression Line to the VP. Thereafter draw in front face.
11. With the one side of the street done, the elevation is replaced by that belonging to the other side of the street. Firstly, the vertical lines must be mapped. From the Viewing Point draw Construction Line to each of the visible points to the Building Points. Note the near corner to the first building is beyond the Arch of Vision so there is no need to map this point. Where these Construction Lines intersect the Picture Plane draw a perpendicular Vertical Line to beyond the Horizon.
12. Here, the building that is on the Picture Plane will be mapped first. Extend the building Heights from the elevation to beyond the front face of the building. Where these Heights intersect the Vertical Line of the picture plane draw a Regression Line to the VP and extend to the Vertical Line of the near face of the building. With the mapped lines in place add the front face of the building and the side face of the building.
13.The first building is mapped in much the same way. Extend the building Heights from the elevation to beyond the front face of the building. Where these Heights intersect the Vertical Line of the picture plane draw a Regression Line to the VP and extend to the Vertical Line of the near face of the building. With the mapped lines in place add the front face of the building and a small part of the side face of the building.
14. Next the vertical line to last 2 buildings must be mapped. In this case the Building Points to the far end of the forth building is obscured by the third building. So there is no need to map the building. Draw a Construction Line from the Viewing Point to each visible Building Point. Where these Construction Line intersect the Picture Plane draw a Vertical Line to beyond the Horizon. Thereafter, extend the Heights from the elevation to the building's vertical lines.
15. Where the Height Lines intersect the line of the near corner draw a Regression Line to the VP. Thereafter, draw the front face of the third building and the partly obscured side face.
16. That is basically how to draw a 1-point perspective of the buildings to a street scene. However...
17. However, in reality the buildings would not be floating in space, but will be linked to the ground. Here the ground line has been added and the thresholds have been drawn to make the perspective look more realistic.